استراتژی های رفع آفتاب سوختگی سیب/چکیده مقاله
Do fruit sunburn control measures affect leaf photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance in ‘Royal Gala’ apple?
A field study was conducted on a 5-year-old orchard of ‘Royal Gala’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) in Stellenbosch, South Africa, to investigate whether the measures employed to control sunburn in fruit, viz., evaporative cooling, Surround WP and 20% black shade net affect leaf photosynthetic gas exchange attributes in comparison to untreated control during the 2003/2004 season. Shade net significantly reduced midday leaf net photosynthetic rate (A) compared to evaporative cooling. Furthermore, shade net and Surround WP significantly reduced midday leaf stomatal conductance (gs) compared to evaporative cooling and control. Evaporative cooling increased light saturated photosynthetic rate by 27 and 24% compared to shade net and Surround WP, respectively.
Light compensation point and dark respiration of shaded leaves were about a third of the other treatments and about 50% less than the control leaves, respectively. Shade net down-regulated photosynthetic capacity of the leaves as evidenced by lower maximum rate of carboxylation and light saturated rate of electron transport compared to control leaves. Sunburn control treatments reduced day respiration by 60–70% compared to the control. Response of A and gs to increasing temperature showed only slight increase in both A and gs with increasing temperature from 20 to 30 °C. A declined at 35 °C in Surround WP and shade net leaves while it declined at 40 °C in evaporatively cooled and control leaves. Evaporative cooling and control had higher gs than shade net and Surround WP at all leaf temperatures. In conclusion, shade net down-regulated photosynthetic reactions and Surround WP and shade net reduced leaf gs and increased the vulnerability of leaf A and gs to high temperature compared to evaporative cooling and control.
Evaporative cooling; Surround WP; Leaf temperature; Photosynthetic rate; Shade net; Stomatal conductance